XML Character Translation Table

Since the ECS converts all incoming text to an internal XML format, it is important that any text that happens to already be in XML format not be confused with the internal representation. To prevent any confusion, ECS input/output streams undergo the following substitutions as they enter the ECS through a source:

External Character Character Name Internal ECS Representation

Less than sign



Greater than sign







Quote mark


| Pipe symbol* &ardlm
\n End of line* &areol
\r Carriage return* &arcr

Anything else

Any other character

Not changed, left “as is”

Text that is converted into this format is also translated back to its original representation as it leaves the ECS.

* These translations are made only for Archive Reader and Archive Writer.